What is Normal Saline?
Normal Saline is a prescription medicine used for fluid and electrolyte replenishment for intravenous administration. Normal Saline may be used alone or with other medications.
Normal saline is a cornerstone of intravenous solutions commonly used in the clinical setting. It is a crystalloid fluid administered via an intravenous solution. Its indications include both adult and pediatric populations as sources of hydration and electrolyte disturbances. It can come in various concentrations; the two specifically addressed are 0.9% and 0.45%.
The following are primary indications for the use of normal saline infusion that have been approved by the FDA:
Extracellular fluid replacement (e.g., dehydration, hypovolemia, hemorrhage, sepsis)
Treatment of metabolic alkalosis in the presence of fluid loss
Mild sodium depletion
Additionally, it has a use as a priming solution for various procedures (e.g., hemodialysis procedures), and to initiate and terminate blood transfusions. Indications for sodium chloride infusions also include pharmaceutics aids and diluents for the infusion of compatible drug additives.
0.9% Normal Saline:
An isotonic concentration of sodium chloride, which is best suited for parenteral replacement of chloride losses that exceed or equal the sodium loss. Within each 100 mL of 0.9% sodium chloride Injection USP, there is 154 mEq of sodium ions and 154 mEq of chloride ions. Additionally, the osmolarity is 308 mOsmol/liter and a pH range of 4.5 to
0.45% Normal Saline:
A hypotonic concentration of sodium chloride. Hypotonic concentrations of sodium chloride (0.45%) are best for parenteral maintenance fluids, rather than aggressive intravascular volume repletion. Within each 100 mL of 0.45% sodium chloride Injection USP, there is 77 mEq of sodium ions and 77 mEq of chloride ions